MANGROVE ECOLOGY: A Manual for a Field Course




Intertidal mangrove swamp communities dominate the world’s tropical and subtropical coasts, paralleling the geographical distribution of coral reefs. They survive in substrate salinities ranging from fresh water alongside rivers to hypersaline ponds and mudflats. Mangrove plants are pioneer as well as mature-phase species. They not only help form these environments, they create habitats for a diverse and characteristic community, including numerous mangrove-dependent organisms. The term “mangrove” refers to an ecological rather than a taxonomic assemblage of plants. Worldwide, 34 species or so in nine genera in five families are considered “true mangroves” and another 80 or so species occur as “minor components” and “mangrove associates.”


Smithsonian Institution






- N/A


- Inglês


- Nenhuma restrição


- Biodiversidade Costeira


- Relatórios, Estudos, Avaliações de Biodiversidade, Linhas de Base


- Diversidade biológica e cultural


- Nenhuma / Não aplicável



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