Evidence of a large cooling between 1690 and 1740 AD in southern Africa


A 350-year-long, well-dated d18O stalagmite record from the summer rainfall region in South Africa is positively correlated with regional air surface temperatures at interannual time scales. The coldest period documented in this record occurred between 1690 and 1740, slightly lagging the Maunder Minimum (1645– 1710). A temperature reconstruction, based on the correlation between regional surface temperatures and the stalagmite d18O variations, indicates that parts of this period could have been as much as 1.46C colder than today. Significant cycles of 22, 11 and 4.8 years demonstrate that the solar magnetic and the El Nin˜o-Southern Oscillation cycle could be important drivers of multidecadal to interannual climate variability in this..

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DOI: 10.1038/srep01767

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